Negative pressure wound therapy… A healing touch approach to difficult wounds in orthopedic practice… A systematic review

Vol 41 | January 2020 | page: 41-45 | Bikram Kar, Buddhadeb Nayak, Harshal Sakale, Alok C Agrawal


Authors: Bikram Kar [1], Buddhadeb Nayak [1], Harshal Sakale [1], Alok C Agrawal [1]

[1] Department of Orthopaedics, SCB Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha India.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Buddhadeb Nayak,
SCB Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha India.
E-mail: buddhadeb9188@gmail.com


Abstract

The routine use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) in big and complex wounds has gained the momentum over the past couple of years .In addition to surgical debridement for treating tissue defects around open fractures and chronic non healing ulcers, contaminated wounds in orthopaedic trauma, open fractures with soft tissue defects, its usage is frequently seen with increasing evidence to aid closed incisions having high risk of wound breakdown. Also the evidence for its use on skin grafts is now well established.
This review will analyze the available literature in order to summarize the current understanding of NPWT in terms of its mechanism of action, its applications, complications, contraindications and its future. Research on the application of NPWT in treating chronic non-healing wounds has largely taken the form of case studies, single-center studies, non-randomized controlled trials, with few randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Our aim is to summarize the current and emerging indications for negative pressure wound therapy in Orthopaedic trauma and the existing evidence for its use.
Keywords: Negative pressure wound therapy, Open fractures, Trauma, Wound management.


References

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4. Campbell PE, Smith GS, Smith JM. Retrospective clinical evaluation of gauze-based negative pressure wound therapy. Int Wound J. 2008;5:280-286.
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6. Campbell PE, Smith GS, Smith JM. Retrospective clinical evaluation of gauze based negative pressure wound therapy. Int Wound J. 2008;5:280–6.
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9. Shirikawa M, Isseroff R. Topical negative pressure devices. Arch Dermatol. 2005;141(11):144
10. Argenta LC, Morykwas MJ. Vacuum-assisted closure: a new method for wound control and treatment: clinical experience. Ann Plast Surg. 1997;38:563-576; discussion 577
11. Kairinos N, Solomons M, Hudson DA. Negative-pressure wound therapy I: the paradox of negative-pressure wound therapy. PlastReconstr Surg. 2009;123:589-598; discussion 599-600.
12. Kairinos N, Solomons M, Hudson DA. The paradox of negative pressure wound therapy–in vitro studies. J PlastReconstrAesthet Surg. 2010;63:174-179.
13. Scherer SS, Pietramaggiori G, Mathews JC, Prsa MJ, Huang S, Orgill DP. The mechanism of action of the vacuum-assisted closure device. PlastReconstr Surg. 2008;122:786-797]
14. Borgquist O, Ingemansson R, Malmsjö M. The influence of low and high pressure levels during negative-pressure wound therapy on wound contraction and fluid evacuation. PlastReconstr Surg. 2011;127:551-559
15. Lancerotto L, Bayer LR, Orgill DP. Mechanisms of action of microdeformational wound therapy.Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2012;23:987-992. [PubMed] [DOI]
16. Younan G, Ogawa R, Ramirez M, Helm D, Dastouri P, Orgill DP. Analysis of nerve and neuropeptide patterns in vacuum-assisted closure-treated diabetic murine wounds. PlastReconstr Surg. 2010;126:87-96.
17. Armstrong DG, Lavery LA. Diabetic Foot Study Consortium.Negative pressure wound therapy after partial diabetic foot amputation: a multicntre randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2005; 366(9498):1704
18. Rivilis I, Milkiewicz M, Boyd P, Goldstein J, Brown MD, Egginton S, Hansen FM, Hudlicka O, Haas TL. Differential involvement of MMP-2 and VEGF during muscle stretch- versus shear stress-induced angiogenesis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;283:H1430-H1438.
19. Quinn TP, Schlueter M, Soifer SJ, Gutierrez JA. Cyclic mechanical stretch induces VEGF and FGF-2 expression in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002; 282:L897-L903.
20. Urschel JD, Scott PG, Williams HT. The effect of mechanical stress on soft and hard tissue repair; a review. Br J Plast Surg. 1988;41:182-186.
21. Orgill DP, Manders EK, Sumpio BE, Lee RC, Attinger CE, Gurtner GC, Ehrlich HP. The mechanisms of action of vacuum assisted closure: more to learn. Surgery. 2009;146:40-51.
22. N. Kairinos, et al Wound Healing Southern Africa, Volume 10 Number 2, Dec 2017, p. 6 – 14.

How to Cite this Article: Kar B, Nayak B, Sakale H, Agrawal A C. | Negative pressure wound therapy… A healing touch approach to difficult wounds in orthopedic practice… a systematic review. | Odisha Journal of Orthopaedics & Trauma | January 2020; 41: 41-45 .

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The significance of peer review in orthopaedic publications

Vol 41 | January 2020 | page: 26-27 | Sundar Narayan Mohanty, Saswat Samant, Udayan Das, Bhabani Shankar Mohapatra, Debobrata Saha, Nishant Gupta


Authors: Sundar Narayan Mohanty [1], Saswat Samant [1], Udayan Das [1], Bhabani Shankar Mohapatra [1], Debobrata Saha [1], Nishant Gupta[1]

[1] Department of Orthopaedics, Hi-Tech Medical College & Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha India.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Satya Ranjan Patra,
Hi-Tech Medical College, Bhubaneswar, Odisha India.
E-mail: drsatyarp@gmail.com


Abstract

The purpose peer review is to enable authors to reach high & accepted standards during the dissemination of research data by the scrutinization of their research data by experts of the same field. Peer review also has its own share of demerits and points for criticism. Various new modifications have been proposed yet a more robust system is yet to be fully developed. It is expected that we make the most of this method to ensure that our fellow orthopaedicians get the most valid and filtered high-quality results from our research..
Keywords: Peer review, manuscript, orthopaedics, publications


References

1. Kelly J, Sadeghieh T, Adeli K. Peer Review in Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide. EJIFCC. 2014;25(3):227–243. Published 2014 Oct 24.
2. Tippmann S. (2014). “New Avenues For Peer Review: An (Audio) Interview With Eva Amsen.” Peer Review Watch.Web. http://peerreviewwatch.wordpress.com/2014/04/05/new-avenues for- peer-review-an-audio-interview-with-Eva-amsen
3. Meadows A. (2013). “A New Approach to Peer Review – an Interview with Keith Collier, Co-founder of Rubriq.” Wiley Exchanges. Web. Retrieved July 07, 2014 from http://exchanges.wiley.com/blog/2013/09/17/a-newapproachto- peer-review-an-interview-with-Keith-collierco-founder-of-rubriq/
4. Ware M. (2008). “Peer Review: Benefits, Perceptions and Alternatives.” PRC Summary Papers, 4:4-20.
5. “Peer Review 101.” (2013). The American Physiological Society. Web. Retrieved from https:// www.the-aps.org/mm/SciencePolicy/Agency-Policy/ Peer-Review/PeerReview101.pdf
6. Schley D. (2009).”Peer Reviewers Satisfied with System.”Times Higher Education. Web. Retrieved, from http://www.timeshighereducation . co.uk/408108.article
7. “Peer Review”. (2014). Elsevier Publishing Guidelines. Web. Retrieved June 24, 2014, from http://www.elsevier. com/about/publishing-guidelines/peer-review
8. Hall SA, \Vi!cox AJ. The btl’ of epidemiologic manuscripts: a study of papers submitted to Epidemiology. Epidemiology 2007: 11->:262-265.

How to Cite this Article: Mohanty S N, Samant S, Das U, Mohapatra B S, Saha D, Gupta N. | The significance of peer review in orthopaedic publications. | Odisha Journal of Orthopaedics & Trauma | January 2020; 41: 26-27.

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Fracture of C1 vertebra managed with unilateral trans-articular screw fixation- Report of two cases

Vol 41 | January 2020 | page: 34-37 | Hemanta Kumar Bamidi, Satya Ranjan Patra, Siddhartha Shankar Mohanty, Kishore Chandra Das


Authors: Hemanta Kumar Bamidi [1], Satya Ranjan Patra [1], Siddhartha Shankar Mohanty [1], Kishore Chandra Das1y [1]

[1] Department of Orthopaedics, Hi-Tech Medical College & Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha India.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Satya Ranjan Patra,
Hi-Tech Medical College, Bhubaneswar, Odisha India.
E-mail: drsatyarp@gmail.com


Abstract

Fracture of C1 vertebrae nearly accounts for 2-13% of cervical spine injury. The fracture may be stable or unstable. If both anterior and posterior arch of atlas is fractured then it is considered an unstable type and needs surgical intervention. Various fixation methods have been described by researchers. We describe two cases of unstable C1 fractures managed with trans-articular screw fixation by minimal invasive technique. Trans-articular screw fixation is a less invasive and safe method for unstable C1 fractures.
Keywords: C1 vertebrae [atlas], Jefferson fracture, Dens fracture, Trans-articular screw fixation.


References

1. Marcon RM et al, Cristante AF, Teixeira WJ, NarasakiDK, Oliveira RP,Fractures of cervical spine. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2013;68(11):1455-61
2. Matthissen C, Yohan R.Epidemiology of atlas fractures-a national registry based cohort study of 1537 cases. Spine J.2015;15(11):2332-7. doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2015.06.052.
3. Keith D. Williams, Campbell Operative Orthopaedics,13th Editions, page no 1785.
4. Hadley MN, CurtisDA, Garrett M, Consiglieri G Acute traumatic atlas fractures:management and long term outcome.Neurosurgery.1988;23(1):31-5.
5. Josten C Jarvers JS, Glasmacher S, Spiegl UJ, ArchOrthop Trauma Surg. 2018 Nov;138(11):1525-1531. doi: 10.1007/s00402-018-3013-y. Epub 2018 Jul 28.
6. Toussaint P, Desenclos C, Peltier J, Le Gars D. Neurochirurgie. 2003 Nov;49(5):519-26. French.
7. Wright N M Lauryssen C. J Neurosurg. 1998 Apr;88(4):634-40. Review.
8. Aravind kumar, international journal of spine surgery, vol.13, No.4, 2019, pp.345-349
9. Lleu M, Charles YP, Blondel B, et al.C1 fracture: analysis of consolidation and complications rates in a prospective multicenter series.OrthopTraumatol Surg Res. 2018;104(7):1049-1054.
10. Panjabi M ,Dvorak J, Crisco J III, Oda T, HilibrandA, Grob D. Flexion extension and lateral bending of upper cervical spine in response to alar ligament transections. J Spinal Disord. 1991;4(2):157-167.

How to Cite this Article: Bamidi H K, Patra S R, Mohanty S S, Das K C. | Fracture of C1 vertebra managed with unilateraltrans articular screw fixation- report of two cases. | Odisha Journal of Orthopaedics & Trauma | January 2020; 41: 34-37 .

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Small patella syndrome – A case report with review of literature

Vol 41 | January 2020 | page: 38-40 | Kishore Chandra Das, Satya Ranjan Patra, Hemanta Kumar Bamidi, Siddhartha Shankar Mohanty


Authors: Kishore Chandra Das [1], Satya Ranjan Patra [1], Hemanta Kumar Bamidi [1], Siddhartha Shankar Mohanty [1]

[1] Department of Orthopaedics, Hi-Tech Medical College, Bhubaneswar, Odisha India.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Satya Ranjan Patra,
Hi-Tech Medical College, Bhubaneswar, Odisha India.
E-mail: drsatyarp@gmail.com


Abstract

Small patella syndrome (SPS) or Hypoplastic patella syndrome (HPS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder due to mutations in the TBX4 gene, characterized by the absence or hypoplasia of the patella with various anomalies of the pelvis and feet. We describe a case of a patient with hypoplastic patella of both knees presenting with pain and difficulty in walking; he was managed conservatively with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and an extension brace for three weeks followed by physiotherapy focusing on range of motion and quadriceps strengthening exercise.
Keywords: Small patella syndrome, Hypoplasia, Nail-patella syndrome, Patella aplasia-hypoplasia, Ischiopatella dysplasia, Ischio-pubic-patella syndrome or Scott-Taor syndrome, Hypoplastic patella syndrome, Ischiopubic synchondrosis


References

1. Bongers EM, Duijf PH, van Beersum SE, Schoots J, Van Kampen A, Burckhardt A, Hamel BC, Losan F, Hoefsloot LH, Yntema HG, Knoers NV, van Bokhoven H. Mutations in the human TBX4 gene cause small patella syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2004;74:1239–1248.
2. Scott JE, Taor WS. The “small patella” syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1979;61:172–1753
3. Kozlowski K, Nelson J. Small patella syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1995;57:558–56
4. Mangino M, Sanchez O, Torrente I, De Luca A, Capon F, Novelli G, Dal-lapiccola B. Localization of a gene for familial patella aplasia-hypoplasia (PTLAH) to chromosome 17q21-22. Am J Hum Genet 1999;65:441-7.
5. Dreyer SD, Zhou G, Baldini A, Winterpacht A, Zabel B, Cole W, Johnson RL, Lee B. Mutations in LMX1B cause abnormal skeletal patterning and renal dysplasia in nail patella syndrome. Nat Genet 1998;19:47-59.
6. Braun HS. Familial aplasia or hypoplasia of the patella. Clin Genet 1978;13:350-2.
7. Kiss I, Mándi A, Szappanos L. Patella a/hypoplasia occurring in familial way. Medical Genetics. Proceedings of the Symposium at Debrecen, Hajduszoboszló, AkádémiaiKiadó, Budapest 1977. Cited by Braun HS. Clin Genet 1978;13:350-2
8. Mangino M, Sanchez O, Torrente I, De Luca A, Capon F, Novelli G, Dal- lapiccola B. Localization of a gene for familial patella aplasia-hypoplasia (PTLAH) to chromosome 17q21-22. Am J Hum Genet 1999;65:441-7.
9. Dreyer SD, Zhou G, Baldini A, Winterpacht A, Zabel B, Cole W, Johnson RL, Lee B. Mutations in LMX1B cause abnormal skeletal patterning and renal dysplasia in nail patella syndrome. Nat Genet 1998;19:47-59.
10. Goeminne L, Dujardin L. Congenital coxa vara, patella aplasia and tarsal synostosis: a new inherited syndrome. Acta Genet Med Gemellol 1970;19: 534-45.
11. Habboub HK, Thneibat WA. Ischio-pubic-patella hypoplasia: is it a new syndrome? PediatrRadiol 1997;27:430-1.
12. Bernhang AM, Levine SA. Familial absence of the patella. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1973;55:1088-90.
13. Braun HS. Familial aplasia or hypoplasia of the patella. Clin Genet 1978;13: 350-2.
14. Kiss I, Mándi A, Szappanos L. Patella a/hypoplasia occurring in familial way. Medical Genetics. Proceedings of the Symposium at Debrecen, Hajduszoboszló, AkádémiaiKiadó, Budapest 1977. Cited by Braun HS. Clin Genet 1978;13:350-2.
15. GUIDERA K. J., SATTERWHITE Y., OGDEN J. A., PUGH L., GANEY T., Nail patella syndrome: a review of 44 orthopaedic patients, J PediatrOrthop, 1991, 11(6):737–742.
16. BEGUIRISTÁIN J. L., DE RADA P. D., BARRIGA A., Nail-patella syndrome: long term evolution, J PediatrOrthop B, 2003, 12(1):13–16.
17. VARGHESE R. A., JOSEPH B., Congenital aplasia of the patella and the distal third of the quadriceps mechanism, J PediatrOrthop B, 2007, 16(5):323–326
18. DELLESTABLE F., PÉRÉ P., BLUM A., RÉGENT D., GAUCHER A., The ‘small patella’ syndrome. Hereditary osteodysplasia of the knee, pelvis and foot, J Bone Joint Surg Br, 1996, 78(1):63–65.
19. LETTS M., Hereditary onycho-osteodysplasia (nail-patella syndrome). A three-generation familial study, Orthop Rev, 1991, 20(3):267–272.
20. BANSKOTA A. K., MAYO-SMITH W., RAJBHANDARI S., ROSENTHAL D. I., Case report 548: Nail-patella syndrome (hereditary onycho-osteodysplasia) with congenital absence of the fibulae, Skeletal Radiol, 1989, 18(4):318–321.
21. TRINN C., SZÖKE B., MAGYARLAKI T., TURI S., ORMOS J., NAGY J., Nail-patella syndrome: clinico-pathological characteristics, Orv Hetil, 1996, 137(41):2253–2256.
22. DUNCAN J. G., SOUTER W. A., Hereditary onchyoosteodysplasia: The nail patella syndrome, J Bone Joint Surg [Br], 1963, 45:242.

How to Cite this Article: Das K C, Patra S R, Bamidi H K, Mohanty S S. | Small patella syndrome – A case report with review of literature. | Odisha Journal of Orthopaedics & Trauma | January 2020; 41: 38-40.

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Haglund deformity – Resection by lateral approach: A case report and review of literature

Vol 41 | January 2020 | page: 31-33 | Siddhartha Shankar Mohanty, Satya Ranjan Patra, Hemanta Kumar Bamidi, Kishore Chandra Das


Authors: Siddhartha Shankar Mohanty [1], Satya Ranjan Patra [1], Hemanta Kumar Bamidi [1], Kishore Chandra Das [1]

[1] Department of Orthopaedics, SCB Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha, India

Address of Correspondence

Dr. Sudhir Kumar Mahapatra,
SCB Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha, India
E-mail: dr.sudhir.2k@gmail.com


Abstract

Haglund’s syndrome is a mechanical cause of posterior heel pain leading to functional and sporting disability. It is due to a conflict between the achilles tendon and the postero-superior hypertrophied tuberosity of the calcaneus. Physical examination and standard imaging studies are usually sufficient to establish the diagnosis. The treatment is primarily medical; surgery is indicated after failure of functional treatment and it consists of a resection of the posterior-superior bone prominence of the calcaneus with a good results. In some cases tendo-Achilles repair may be needed. We describe a case of symptomatic Haglund’s syndrome that was treated by excision of the mass through lateral approach without tendo-Achilles reconstruction.
Keywords: Haglund’s syndrome, Calcaneus, Surgical excision, Achilles tendon.


References

1. Clancy WG. Runners’ injuries. Part two. evaluation and treatment of specific injuries. Am J Sports Med 1980;8:287-9.
2. Fiamengo SA, Warren RF, Marshall JL, Vigorita VT, Hersh A. Posterior heel pain associated with a calcaneal step and Achilles tendon calcification. ClinOrthopRelat Res 1982;162:203-11.
3. Haglund P. Beitragzurklinik der Achilles tendon. ZeitschrOrthopChir 1928;49:49-58.
4. Jerosch J, Schunck J, Sokkar SH. Endoscopic calcaneoplasty (ECP) as a surgical treatment of haglund’s syndrome. Knee Surg Sports TraumatolArthrosc 2007;15:927-34.
5. Van Dijk CN, van Dyk CE, Scholten PE, Kort NP.Endoscopic calcaneoplasty. Foot Ankle Clin 2006;2:439-46.
6. Pavlov H, Heneghan MA, Hersh A, Goldman AB, Vigorita V. The Haglund syndrome: initial and differential diagnosis. Radiology. 1982;144(1):83-8.
7. Haglund P. BeitragzurKlinik der Achillessehne. Z OrthopChir.1927; 49: 49-58.
8. McGarvey WC, Palumbo RC, Baxter DE, Leibman BD. Insertional Achilles tendinosis: surgical treatment through a central tendon splitting approach. Foot Ankle Int. 2002; 23: 19-25.
9. McGarvey WC, Palumbo RC, Baxter DE, Leibman BD. Insertional Achilles tendinosis: surgical treatment through a central tendon splitting approach. Foot Ankle Int. 2002; 23: 19-25.
10. Dr O. Laffenetre, Dr J. Lucas, Pr D. Chauveaux Document d’information du patient sur le syndrome de HAGLUND CHU – Hopitaux de Bordeaux. 2011.
11. Angermann P. Chronic retrocalcaneal bursitis treated by resection of the calcaneus. Foot Ankle. 1990;10(5):285-7.
12. Green AH, Hass MI, Tubrity SP, Goldberg MM, Perry JB. Calcaneal osteotomy for retrocalcaneal exostosis.ClinPodiatr Med Surg. 1991;8:659-65.
13. Lu CC, Cheng YM, Fu YC, Tien YC, Chen SK. Angle analysis of Haglund syndrome and its relationship with osseous variations and Achilles tendon calcification. Foot Ankle Int. 2007;28(2):181-5.
14. Sammarco GJ, Taylor AL. Operative management of Haglund deformity in the non athlete: a retrospective study. Foot Ankle Int. 1998;19:724-9.
15. Sella EJ, Caminear DS, McLarney EA. Haglund syndrome. J Foot Ankle Surg. 1998;37:110-4.
16. Anderson JA, Suero E, O’Loughlin PF, Kennedy JG. Surgery for Retrocalcaneal Bursitis: A Tendon-splitting versus a Lateral Approach. ClinOrthopRelat Res. 2008;466(7):1678-82.
17. V.Gulati, M. Jaggard, S. S. Al-Nammari et al., “Management ofachilles tendon injury: a current concepts systematic review,”World Journal of Orthopaedics, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 380–386, 2015.

How to Cite this Article: Mohanty S S, Patra S R, Bamidi H K, Das K C. | Haglund deformity – resection by lateral approach: a case report and review of literature. | Odisha Journal of Orthopaedics & Trauma | January 2020; 41: 31-33 .

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Characteristic of foot morphology and their relationship to gender, Age, Body mass index and bilateral asymmetry in Indian adults with normal and symptomatic foot

Vol 41 | January 2020 | page: 7-10 | A C Agrawal, Bikram K Kar, Harshal Sakale, Sandeep, Rakshit J


Authors: A C Agrawal [1], Bikram K Kar [1], Harshal Sakale [1], Sandeep [1], Rakshit J [1]

[1] Department Of Orthopaedics, AIIMS Raipur Chattisgarh, India.

Address of Correspondence

Dr. Rakshit J,
AIIMS Raipur Chattisgarh, India.
E-mail: jgrakshit@gmail.com


Abstract

Introduction: The human foot, the foundation for bipedal locomotion, is a complex adaptation that evolved through extensive remodelling of the hind appendage of our arboreal primate forebears (Susman 1983).Different characteristics of foot morphology are commonly accompanied by altering lower extremity biomechanical characteristics and foot function. Clarifying what factors affect foot morphology is helpful in understanding the basis of foot deformity and foot dysfunction. As the direction of change in foot morphology caused by ageing can be assumed theoretically, it should be possible to judge whether ageing or secular changes are more important in determining the foot morphology of Indian adults.
Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of foot morphology and whether related factors such as gender, age, body mass index (BMI) and bilateral asymmetry have an impact on foot morphology.
Material and Methodology and Implications: The present study is planned in the Department of Orthopaedics, AIIMS Raipur CG. One hundred asymptomatic adults were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants will be categorised by gender, age, BMI and left and right foot respectively to compare foot morphology differences. The characteristics of foot morphology are measured by taking measurements, foot prints on graph paper, photographs Fig 1. All measurements were done by one person to avoid error that could be caused by individual differences or any discomfort. The parameters obtained from the participants include: age, gender, foot length, foot breadth and foot height of the subjects
Result: Symptomatic foot population were overweight compared to asymptomatic population and hence forth had a higher BMI .Mean arch height was lower with mean of 3.5224 in symptomatic foot compared to asyptomatic foot that was 3.9663.Mean arch height index in right foot – weight bearing was 0.2492 compared to non weight bearing foot that was 0.2312
Conclusion: Using arch index values obtained from imprint over paper to classify foot type as high arched ,normal , low arched ,based on defined ranges gives an idea about the cause of foot pathology and also the socio- demographical parameters responsible for foot morphology.
Keywords: Foot Morphology, Symptomatic foot, BMI.


References

1. William Ledoux, Ph.D. , Eric Rohr, M.S. , Randy Ching, Ph.D. , Bruce Sangeorzan, M.D RR&D Centre of Excellence for Limb Loss Prevention and Prosthetic Engineering, VA Puget Sound Heath Care System, Seattle, and Department of Medical Engineering, University of Washington 98108, USA. wrledoux@u.washington.edu
2. M Mauch, S Grau, I Krauss, C Maiwald and T Horstmann, Department of Sports Medicine, Medical Clinic, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.
3. Zhao X1, Tsujimoto T2, Kim B1, Katayama Y3, Tanaka K2. 1- Doctoral Program in Sports Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. 2- Faculty of Health and Sports Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. 3- Faculty of Education, Kogakkan University, Mie, Japan.
4. Ann Hallemans, Lic; Kristiaan D’Aouˆt, Ph.D.; Dirk De Clercq, Ph.D.; Peter Aerts, Ph.D.∗Antwerp, Belgium. The Laboratory for Functional Morphology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium. The Laboratory for Movement and Sport Sciences, University of Ghent, Belgium.
5. Singla R, Associate Professor *, Biswas M, Formerly MSc Student, * Bedi M, Professor *, Bedi S. Professor, ***Department of Anatomy, MMIMSR Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India. ** Department of Pathology, MMIMSR Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India.
6. DANIEL M. T. FESSLER1, KEVIN J. HALEY1 & ROSHNI D. LAL2. 1 Center for Behavior, Evolution, and Culture and Department of Anthropology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1553, USA and 2 Dewitt Stetten, Jr Museum of Medical Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-2092, USA, and Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA.
7. López-López D, Vilar-Fernández JM, Barros-García G, et al. Foot Arch Height and Quality of Life in Adults: A Strobe Observational Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(7):1555. Published 2018 Jul 23. doi:10.3390/ijerph15071555
8. Matthew Hill, Roozbeh Naemi, Helen Branthwaite, Nachiappan Chockalingam, The relationship between arch height and foot length: Implications for size grading, Applied Ergonomics, Volume 59, Part A,2017,
9. Nagano K, Okuyama R, Taniguchi N, Yoshida T. Gender difference in factors affecting the medial longitudinal arch height of the foot in healthy young adults. J PhysTher Sci. 2018;30(5):675–679. doi:10.1589/jpts.30.675.

How to Cite this Article: Agrawal A C, Bikram K K, Sakale H, Sandeep, Rakshit. | Characteristic of foot morphology and their relationship to gender, Age, Body mass index and bilateral asymmetry in Indian adults with normal and symptomatic foot. | Odisha Journal of Orthopaedics & Trauma | January 2020; 41: 7-10.  

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Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Aenean commodo ligula eget dolor. Aenean massa. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus.

Donec quam felis, ultricies nec, pellentesque eu, pretium quis, sem. Nulla consequat massa quis enim. Donec pede justo, fringilla vel, aliquet nec, vulputate eget, arcu. In enim justo, rhoncus ut, imperdiet a, venenatis vitae, justo. Nullam dictum felis eu pede mollis pretium. Integer tincidunt. Cras dapibus. Vivamus elementum semper nisi.

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